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Volume 11 Issue 1

Differential association and marijuana use in a juvenile drug court sample

Gray, A. C., Durkin, K. F., Melton, W., Call, J. T., & Evans, H. J.

This paper examines the impact of one specific type of learning (differential association) on the marijuana use of juveniles who were participating in a drug court program. The subjects were youths from a rural community in Ohio. The data were taken from the Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) (Dennis, 1999). The theoretical framework for this research was Sutherland's theory of differential association. The differential association model accounted for nearly 40% of the marijuana use of the youths in this sample. Two specific measures (the number of people a subject used drugs with and using drugs with a sexual partner) were significant predictors of marijuana use. Implications of this study for court programs and future research also are discussed.

The impact of diversion on recidivism rates in a rural Michigan County - A local perspective.

Vander Kooi, G. P.

This article investigates the merits of a county prosecutor-s drug and alcohol diversion program in a rural county in northern Michigan. This program has been in existence since 1996 as an alternative to formal intervention by the juvenile courts in Michigan. This program's objective is to provide an alternative to formal state intervention, which is cost efficient and still an effective means of dealing with the delinquent youth of that county. The actual program is a four-month long series which focuses on education, decision making, team building, and prevention as opposed to punishment and immersion in the system with hardened delinquents. This study explores the recidivism rates of the population that have been involved in the program. The result of this study indicates that the diversion process that is being utilized is successful.

Forced to CHANGE: Staff and inmate perceptions of involuntary treatment and its effects.

Hogan. N. L., Barton-Bellessa, S. M., & Lambert, E. G.

The ideological debate over the ability of involuntary programs to modify inmate behavior permeates the treatment literature. Ideology aside, research reveals that programs targeting high-risk offenders are most likely to reduce recidivism even though this group is the least likely to participate voluntarily. With the current economic environment and the continued disappearance of prevention/rehabilitation funding, it may be more cost-effective to target those who need it the most. Interviews were conducted with a sample of inmates involuntarily placed into a Cognitive Housing Approach: New Goals Environment (CHANGE) program as well as the staff who worked with the program. Responses from both inmates and staff support the use of involuntary programs for high risk populations. These qualitative results indicate that behavioral change was occurring for the majority of program participants despite being forced to participate.

Apprenticeship in drinking: Learning to play and binge drinking on a college campus.

Hundersmarck, S. F.

Binge drinking on the college campus and the problems associated with it carry a high cost. Problems associated with alcohol abuse on the college campus include death, injury, property damage and sexual assaults. These issues continue to plague police and college administration officials. To date, most research has focused on individual factors associated with the problem of binge drinking. In this paper the author used both quantitative and qualitative methodology to research binge drinking among college students on a university campus. The results obtained through observations and structured interviews show that students enter a developmental model of drinking beginning most often in their freshman year that continues into their senior year. Freshman students entered into an "apprenticeship of drinking" as they progressed from apprentice to upperclassman expert by learning the social and cultural norms and values of drinking on campus. For purposes of this paper binge drinking was defined as 4-5 drinks in the same setting or occasion.

Learning about students: Developing a career-based criminal justice curriculum

Hundersmarck, S. F., & Vasicek, M.

Faced with scrutiny by the government over student loans, college officials continue to search for ways to keep students engaged and enrolled in their programs. At the same time, there is increasing concern over the access of education for all and the opportunity it provides. Private and public colleges now are re-thinking their practices to retain students in their programs. In many fields of study, there has been a push for career-based education. In this paper we propose that a curriculum focused on student learning, coupled with career-based courses, will help ensure college success and successful entry into the workplace. This article examines the process in which an online criminal justice program is developing a new approach to education utilizing a career-based approach to learning for students.