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Duke, Laura M. & Desforges, Donna M.
The empirical literature on variables affecting jury decision-making has focused primarily on cases with male perpetrators almost to the exclusion of female perpetrators. This is particularly true in studies involving sexual abuse cases. In order to further study the impact of gender on juror decision-making, mock jurors read sexual abuse case scenarios that manipulated perpetrator and victim gender, as well as victim age. Mock juror gender was also considered. Many of the results suggest less impact of gender than originally expected. However, mock juror gender did play a significant role in sentence recommendations, and short- and long-term effects of the abuse were correlated with sentence recommendations.
Lambert, E. G., Hogan, N. L., & Cluse-Tolar, T.
Working in a correctional institute is often a demanding and stressful job. This study examined the impact of job characteristics and job involvement on correctional staff job stress. Specifically, the effects of supervision, perceived dangerousness of the job, job variety, feedback, role stress, and job involvement were studied, while controlling for the effects of the personal characteristics of gender, educational level, race, age, and tenure. Using Ordinary Least Squared regression, it was observed that gender, age, perceived dangerousness of the job, feedback, role stress, and job involvement had statistically significant effects on correctional staff job stress. Tenure, educational level, race, supervision, and job variety had non-significant effects.
This article reviews principles of effective training (Beebe, Mottet, & Roach, 2004), explicates the strengths and weaknesses of deception detection training research, and proposes a research agenda for deception detection training within the law enforcement context. Overall, deception detection training studies to-date fail to follow principles of effective training. Trainee needs are not assessed, training content is lacking, and the trainer and trainee engage in passive roles. A model is proposed with the aim of providing a conceptual framework for thinking about deception detection training and establishing a research agenda for future studies. In particular, it extends previously suggested changes to deception detection training research (Frank & Feeley, 2003), applies principles of effective training methods (Beebe et al., 2004), and calls for a context-dependent (Flyvbjerg, 2001) shift in deception detection training studies.
This paper examines the relevance of perceptions of crime seriousness and Native American Indian cultural values to collective efficacy in two distinct cultural groups residing in the same rural Native American Indian reservation in Colorado. The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, which examined census track differences in community level violence within an urban area, concluded that collective efficacy mitigates the impact of concentrated disadvantage on neighborhood violence. Similarly, the present study utilized survey and interview data collected during the Southern Ute Indian Community Safety Survey to determine that perceptions of crime seriousness and Indian cultural values are associated with the group’s level of collective efficacy. Findings suggest that Indians and non-Indians may respond differently to community victimization.